Given the well-documented disproportionality in discipline rates by students’ racial and ethnic identities across the United States, the current study examines these disparities at several levels in the school discipline process, and discusses impacts of being involved in these processes for students academically and behaviorally, as well as how these experiences impact students’ perceptions of school. The design and purpose of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model are discussed, as are state-wide studies indicating that the ASCA National Model positively impacts student academic and behavioral success in several areas, including overall discipline rates and graduation rates. Then, implications for future research and interventions to aid school counselors in advocating for their students of color and for more equitable discipline processes are examined.

Date of Award


Document Type

Capstone Paper


Counselor Education

First Advisor

Mary Fawcett

Unique Identifier




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