Adam T. Bahr


The population of minor children with an incarcerated parent has grown by 80% since 1991 (Glaze & Maruschak, 2008). Often referred to as the forgotten population, children of incarcerated parents can exhibit many setbacks, socially and psychologically. The effects of the trauma related to having a parent incarcerated include isolating functions, anxiety, low concentration in school, problems sleeping, juvenile incarceration, criminal behavior, depression, and vulnerability towards peer pressure. Without proper intervention, these children have a 70% chance of following their parents into incarceration which leads to a trend as intergenerational incarceration. When a parent is incarcerated, the child faces several changes in their life which are present in the home, community, and school setting. The changes these children face can cause a frightening range of challenges; coping with a loss of a caregiver, adjusting to new home environments, familial, economic hardships, change in the primary caregiver, as well as developmental regression such as bedwetting. To counteract the traumatic impacts of this forgotten population in the school system, school counselors can provide several data-based intervention strategies. To begin, implementing group-based interventions that focus on trauma. For example, Springer, lynch, and Rubin (2000) created a solution-focused group that used techniques from solution-focused theorists, mutual-aid interventions, and techniques that focused on enhancing self-esteem. Secondly, a prevention program can be used to address behaviors that are linked to delinquency, violence, and socially withdrawn behaviors. In accordance, there have been many revelations in how to help this population; the ones mentioned are only a few that have been developed.

Date of Award


Document Type

Capstone Paper


Counselor Education

First Advisor

Mary Fawcett

Unique Identifier




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