Date of Award


Document Type

Capstone Paper


Counselor Education

First Advisor

Mitchell Moore


The Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration created the National Household Survey, which showed children are already abusing substances by ages 12 or 13 (Robertson, David, & Rao, 2003). Often, signs of risk can indicate whether children will have a higher or lower likelihood of substance abuse. The signs can be detected as early as infancy in certain cases. Risk signs identify as risk factors, predictive factors, and adverse childhood experiences. The risk signs may vary within cultures. Prevention programs target risk signs at different developmental levels because risk continues to evolve while children age. An example prevention program, The Coping Power Program, will be reviewed as how it incorporates risk sign identification and its results in reducing substance abuse.

Unique Identifier



Educational use only. All copyright protections apply.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.