Essays in Education


The nation-wide movement toward increased accountability in our schools has been implemented in large part through state-mandated standardized testing of students. The state assessments in Texas, as in many states, have a powerful influence on educators’ decisions and practices. Whether or not students with special learning needs are provided with an educational experience in the least restrictive environment is dependent upon the decisions and actions of educators. The high-stakes testing agenda in Texas influences decisions related to the inclusion of students with special learning needs. In this article, we examine the issue of how the inclusion of students with disabilities is being achieved in the midst of the high-stakes testing environment of south Texas. Using a questionnaire mailed to general and special education teachers along with school administrators, we examine educators’ attitudes/practices concerning inclusion and testing.

Unique Identifier




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.