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Article written by Robert E. Munkel and Cal R. Fremling regarding the bounty hunting system used in Houston County, MN, to rid the area of locally defined varmint species. Fremling and Munkel are credited as, respectively: "Winona State College" and "Beaver Dam High School, Beaver Dam, Wisconsin." Abstract: "The bounty system has been in effect for 82 years in Houston County, Minnesota. Over $170,000 in bounties have been paid during that time for wolves, foxes, rattlesnakes, pocket gophers, striped gophers, woodchucks, and crows. Over 7,000 rattlesnakes have been bountied in a single year. A family of semi-professional bounty hunters collected 2,511 rattlesnakes in one year. With the possible exception of wolves, the bounty system has had little apparent effect in controlling animal populations in Houston County. Habitat change has been primarily responsible for the decrease in numbers of wolves and for the rapid increase in numbers of red fox and deer." Article reprinted from The Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science, volume 34, number 2, 1967. 5 pages. Part of the Cal R. Fremling Collection.

Publication Date


Item Type





Winona, Minnesota


Animals; Houston County; Houston County (Minn.)


Special Collections-Library



Rights Management

Requests to reproduce this image must be granted by the Winona County Historical Society.

Contributing Institution

Winona County History Center

Master File Format


Fiscal Sponsor

This project has been financed in part with funds provided by the State of Minnesota from the Arts and Cultural Heritage Fund through the Minnesota Historical Society.

Scanning Responsibility

Northern Micrographics

Date Digital

2019-06-24 00:00

Metadata Creation Responsibility

Anna Gaffey

Unique Identifier


A review of the bounty system as a method of controlling undesirable animal populations in Houston County, Minnesota (1883-1965)



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